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A TSS classification study of ‘Rocha’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) based on non-invasive visible/near infra-red reflectance spectra
- Bexiga, Florentino, Rodrigues, Daniela, Guerra, Rui, Brázio, António, Balegas, Tiago, Cavaco, Ana M., Antunes, Maria Dulce, Valente de Oliveira, José
- Postharvest biology and technology 2017 v.132 pp. 23-30
- Pyrus communis, least squares, pears, reflectance spectroscopy, support vector machines, total soluble solids
- The study focuses on the application of machine learning techniques for classifying the internal quality of ‘Rocha’ Pear (Pyrus communis L.), i.e., the total soluble solids (TSS), using the non-invasive technique of visible/near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy. Six representative classifiers were evaluated under realistic experimental conditions. The classifiers include representatives of classic parametric (logistic and multiple linear regression), non-parametric distance based methods (K-nearest neighbors), correlation-based (partial least squares), ensemble methods (random forests) and maximum margin classifiers (support vector machines). The classifiers were assessed against metrics such as accuracy, Cohen's Kappa, F-Measure, and the area under the precision-recall curve (AUC) in a 10×10-fold cross-validation plan. For result analysis non-parametric statistical test of hypotheses were employed. A total of 4880 fruit samples from different origins, maturation states, and harvest years were considered. The main conclusion is that the maximum margin classifier outperforms all the others studied ones, including the commonly used partial least squares. The conclusion holds for both a reflectance spectrum with 1024 features and for a 128 subsample of these. An estimate of the out-of-sample performance for the best classifier is also provided.