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Aqueous washings of host plant surface influence the growth inhibitory effects of δ‐endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis against Helicoverpa armigera

Paramasiva, Inakarla, War, Abdul Rashid, Krishnayya, P. V., Sharma, Hari C.
Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 2016 v.161 no.2 pp. 79-91
Bacillus thuringiensis, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Gossypium hirsutum, Helicoverpa armigera, Sorghum bicolor, adults, artificial diets, bacteria, bioactive properties, chickpeas, cotton, crystal proteins, delta-endotoxins, fecundity, feeds, host plants, insect pests, larvae, leaves, longevity, pigeon peas, pods, pupae, pupation
Biological activity of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) against insect pests is influenced by the host plants. To understand the underlying mechanism of variation in biological activity of Bt on host plants, we studied the effect of chemicals from the surface of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., Fabaceae) leaves (ICCC 37 and ICC 506EB), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, Poaceae] grain (ICSV 745 and IS 18698), pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Fabaceae] pods (ICPL 87 and ICPL 332WR), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae) squares (RCH 2 and Bt RCH 2), on which Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeds under natural conditions. Surface chemicals extracted in water from host plant leaves were added to the standard artificial diet containing a commercial formulation of Bt or Cry1Ac. Data were recorded on larval and pupal weights, pupation, adult emergence, larval and pupal periods, adult longevity, and fecundity. Weights of H. armigera at 5 days after initiation of the experiment were significantly reduced on artificial diets containing Bt + pod washings of ICPL 87 and ICPL 332WR, grain washings of ICSV 745, or square washings of RCH 2, and Cry1Ac + leaf‐surface washings of ICC 506EB. Pupal weights were lower on diets containing leaf‐surface washings of ICCC 37 + Bt than on standard artificial diet. Larval periods were prolonged on diets containing Bt + leaf‐surface washings of ICCC 37, pod washings of ICPL 87, and square washings of RCH 2, and on standard artificial diet + Cry1Ac. Pupation was significantly higher on standard artificial diet + Cry1Ac than on diets with Bt + grain washings of ICSV 745 and Cry1Ac + square washings of RCH 2 and Bt RCH 2. Adult emergence was lowest on diets with square washings of RCH 2 + Bt and grain washings of ICSV 745 + Cry1Ac. The results suggested that leaf‐surface washings play an important role in biological activity of Bt/Cry1Ac against H. armigera.