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Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, and Neuroprotective Properties of Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) Fruit Extracts from Different Ripening Stages
- Yang, Jiufang, Liu, Xuanjun, Zhang, Xiaoxu, Jin, Qing, Li, Jingming
- Journal of food science 2016 v.81 no.10 pp. C2439
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Alzheimer disease, Morus alba, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, cell viability, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin, fruit extracts, fruits, gallic acid, inhibitory concentration 50, liquid chromatography, models, mulberries, neuroprotective effect, ripening, rutin, tandem mass spectrometry, China
- The present work investigated the phenolic profiles (including nonanthocyanin and anthocyanin phenolics), antioxidant activities, and neuroprotective potential of mulberry fruit (MF) (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) grown in China at different ripening stages. High‐performance liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC‐MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total monomeric anthocyanin content (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The neuroprotective effects of MFs at different ripening stages were investigated using Aβ₂₅‐₃₅‐treated PC12 cells as the cellular model of Alzheimer's disease. Of the 19 phenolic compounds characterized from the MF extracts, the contents of rutin and anthocyanins increased and that of chlorogenic acid decreased significantly with maturity. At the fully ripened stage, MF extracts showed the highest amounts of TPC (11.23 mg gallic acid equivalents/g fresh weight), TFC (15.1 mg rutin equivalents/g fresh weight), and TAC (1177 mg cyanidin 3‐O‐glucoside equivalents/100 g fresh weight). Meanwhile, antioxidant activity of MF extracts at this stage was highest according to ABTS (an IC50 value of 4.11 μg/mL) and DPPH (an IC50 value of 10.08 μg/mL) assays. Cellular assays revealed increased cell viability in cells treated with the ripe MF extracts; compared with the control groups, the ripening fruits also increased the antioxidant enzyme levels in PC12 cells. Together, these results suggest that the antioxidant activities and neuroprotective properties of ripening MFs are related to the contents and types of phenolic compounds that are present in the fruits.