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Recent invasion of the tropical Atlantic by an Indo-Pacific coral reef fish
- ROCHA, LUIZ A., ROBERTSON, D. ROSS, ROCHA, CLAUDIA R., TASSELL, JAMES L., CRAIG, MATTHEW T., BOWEN, BRIAN W.
- Molecular ecology 2005 v.14 no.13 pp. 3921-3928
- Gobiidae, anatomy and morphology, census data, coral reefs, cytochrome b, fish, global warming, mitochondrial DNA, phylogeny, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean
- The last tropical connection between Atlantic and Indian-Pacific habitats closed c. 2 million years ago (Ma), with the onset of cold-water upwelling off southwestern Africa. Yet comparative morphology indicates more recent connections in several taxa, including reef-associated gobies (genus Gnatholepis). Coalescence and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA cytochrome b sequences demonstrate that Gnatholepis invaded the Atlantic during an interglacial period ∼145 000 years ago (d = 0.0054), colonizing from the Indian Ocean to the western Atlantic, and subsequently to the central (∼100 000 years ago) and eastern Atlantic (∼30 000 years ago). Census data show a contemporary range expansion in the northeastern Atlantic linked to global warming.