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Effect of Salt and Ethanol Addition on Zein–Starch Dough and Bread Quality

Smith, Brennan M., Bean, Scott R., Selling, Gordon, Sessa, David, Aramouni, Fadi M.
Journal of food science 2017 v.82 no.3 pp. 613-621
breadmaking quality, breads, corn starch, dough, dough development, ethanol, gluten-free foods, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, viscoelasticity, zein
Development of viscoelastic doughs from non‐wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten‐free products. Little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein–starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein–80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na₂SO₄ were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein–starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na₂SO₄ resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of β‐ME had minimal softening effects on zein–starch dough. Specific volumes of zein–starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality.