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Identification of Microbial Profile of Koji Using Single Molecule, Real‐Time Sequencing Technology
- Hui, Wenyan, Hou, Qiangchuan, Cao, Chenxia, Xu, Haiyan, Zhen, Yi, Kwok, Lai‐Yu, Sun, Tiansong, Zhang, Heping, Zhang, Wenyi
- Journal of food science 2017 v.82 no.5 pp. 1193-1199
- Ochrobactrum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, fungi, koji, miso, nucleotide sequences, sake, soy sauce
- Koji is a kind of Japanese traditional fermented starter that has been used for centuries. Many fermented foods are made from koji, such as sake, miso, and soy sauce. This study used the single molecule real‐time sequencing technology (SMRT) to investigate the bacterial and fungal microbiota of 3 Japanese koji samples. After SMRT analysis, a total of 39121 high‐quality sequences were generated, including 14354 bacterial and 24767 fungal sequence reads. The high‐quality gene sequences were assigned to 5 bacterial and 2 fungal plyla, dominated by Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, respectively. At the genus level, Ochrobactrum and Wickerhamomyces were the most abundant bacterial and fungal genera, respectively. The predominant bacterial and fungal species were Ochrobactrum lupini and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, respectively. Our study profiled the microbiota composition of 3 Japanese koji samples to the species level precision. The results may be useful for further development of traditional fermented products, especially optimization of koji preparation. Meanwhile, this study has demonstrated that SMRT is a robust tool for analyzing the microbial composition in food samples.