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Textural Complexity Model Foods Assessed with Instrumental and Sensory Measurements

Tang, Jingyuan, Larsen, Danaé S., Ferguson, Lynnette, James, Bryony J.
Journal of texture studies 2017 v.48 no.1 pp. 9-22
deglutition, foods, mastication, mechanical properties, models, satiety, sensation, sensory evaluation, texture
The term textural complexity is associated with a range of different perceivable textures and sensations occurring from first bite through to swallow. The aim of this study was to develop gel‐based model foods with “built‐in” levels of textural complexity for use in a wider study of the impact of texture on satiation and satiety. The model foods needed to be quantified for textural complexity and that assessment was conducted using instrumental and sensory measurements model foods of different structural complexity (based on inclusions and layers with differing mechanical properties) resulted in puncture curves with differing numbers of peaks caused by the sequential puncture of structural features, and in differing lengths; in general higher complexity led to a greater number of peaks and greater length. Consistent with the definition of textural complexity, more texturally complex samples generated a greater number of descriptors during the “chewdown” phase in descriptive sensory analysis. Temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) analysis gave different information on the dynamics of texture perception during chewing sequence compared to descriptive analysis but confirmed the levels of textural complexity of the model foods. In particular TDS indicates the evolution of the number of texture attributes perceived, and the number of times the dominant texture changed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: These gel‐based model foods with different textural complexity, similar nutritional densities and comparable chewing time can be used for investigating the hypothesized relationship between textural complexity and satiation. The instrumental and sensory tests used in this study proved capable of differentiating levels of textural complexity. The findings of Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Temporal Dominance of Sensation, and using the number of peaks and length of a puncture curve to quantify textural complexity could be expanded on in the future to create standardised tests.