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Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron‐fortified white breads in caco‐2 cell model: an experimental study

Nikooyeh, Bahareh, Neyestani, Tirang R
Journal of the science of food and agriculture 2017 v.97 no.8 pp. 2541-2546
absorption, bioavailability, digestion, ferritin, ferrous sulfate, flat breads, fortified foods, gastrointestinal system, human cell lines, iron, models, staple foods, wheat, white bread, whole wheat bread
BACKGROUND: Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d⁻¹, could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco‐2 cell model. RESULTS: Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0–8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5–6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. CONCLUSION: Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron‐fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry