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Cell mediated innate responses of cattle and swine are diverse during foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection: A unique landscape of innate immunity

Toka, Felix N, Golde, William T.
Immunology Letters 2013 v.152 no.2 pp. 135
Foot-and-mouth disease virus, acute course, cattle, cell-mediated immunity, fever, foot-and-mouth disease, herds, immune response, swine, viremia, virus replication
Pathogens in general and pathogenic viruses in particular have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to escape the immune response of mammalian species. Viruses that cause acute disease tend to bear characteristics that make them very contagious, as survival does not derive from chronicity of infection, but spread of disease throughout the herd. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most contagious viruses known. Upon infection of susceptible species, cloven-hoofed animals, the virus proliferates rapidly and causes a vesicular disease within 2–4 days. Disease symptoms resolve by 10 days to 2 weeks and in most cases, virus can no longer be detected. Periods of fever and viremia are usually brief, 1–3 days. In vivo control of virus infection and clearance of the virus during and following acute infection is of particular interest. The interaction of this virus with cells mediating the early, innate immune response has been analyzed in a number of recent studies. In most reports, the virus has a distinct inhibitory effect on the response of cells early in infection. Here we review these new data and discuss the dynamics of the interaction of virus with different cell types mediating the immune response to infection.