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Elevated CO2 plus chronic warming reduce nitrogen uptake and levels or activities of nitrogen‐uptake and ‐assimilatory proteins in tomato roots
- Jayawardena, Dileepa M., Heckathorn, Scott A., Bista, Deepesh R., Mishra, Sasmita, Boldt, Jennifer K., Krause, Charles R.
- Physiologia plantarum 2017 v.159 no.3 pp. 354-365
- Solanum lycopersicum, ammonium, ammonium compounds, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide enrichment, food quality, global warming, nitrates, nitrogen, plant growth, protein content, roots, shoots, temperature, tomatoes, transport proteins
- Atmospheric CO₂ enrichment is expected to often benefit plant growth, despite causing global warming and nitrogen (N) dilution in plants. Most plants primarily procure N as inorganic nitrate (NO₃ ⁻) or ammonium (NH₄ ⁺), using membrane‐localized transport proteins in roots, which are key targets for improving N use. Although interactive effects of elevated CO₂, chronic warming and N form on N relations are expected, these have not been studied. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown at two levels of CO₂ (400 or 700 ppm) and two temperature regimes (30 or 37°C), with NO₃ ⁻ or NH₄ ⁺ as the N source. Elevated CO₂ plus chronic warming severely inhibited plant growth, regardless of N form, while individually they had smaller effects on growth. Although %N in roots was similar among all treatments, elevated CO₂ plus warming decreased (1) N‐uptake rate by roots, (2) total protein concentration in roots, indicating an inhibition of N assimilation and (3) shoot %N, indicating a potential inhibition of N translocation from roots to shoots. Under elevated CO₂ plus warming, reduced NO₃ ⁻‐uptake rate per g root was correlated with a decrease in the concentration of NO₃ ⁻‐uptake proteins per g root, reduced NH₄ ⁺ uptake was correlated with decreased activity of NH₄ ⁺‐uptake proteins and reduced N assimilation was correlated with decreased concentration of N‐assimilatory proteins. These results indicate that elevated CO₂ and chronic warming can act synergistically to decrease plant N uptake and assimilation; hence, future global warming may decrease both plant growth and food quality (%N).