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NADPH oxidases differentially regulate ROS metabolism and nutrient uptake under cadmium toxicity

Gupta, D. K., Pena, L. B., Romero‐Puertas, M. C., Hernández, A., Inouhe, M., Sandalio, L. M.
Plant, cell and environment 2017 v.40 no.4 pp. 509-526
(S)-2-hydroxy-acid oxidase, Arabidopsis thaliana, NADP (coenzyme), biotechnology, cadmium, calcium, catalase, gene expression regulation, genotype, glutathione-disulfide reductase, homeostasis, hydrogen peroxide, hydroponics, iron, leaves, lipid peroxidation, metabolism, mutants, nitric oxide, nutrient balance, nutrient uptake, phytoremediation, polluted soils, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, zinc
The role of NADPH oxidases under cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants AtrbohC, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, which were grown under hydroponic conditions with 25 and 100 μM Cd for 1 and 5 days. Cadmium reduced the growth of leaves in WT, AtrbohC and D, but not in AtrbohF. A time‐dependent increase in H₂O₂ and lipid peroxidation was observed in all genotypes, with AtrbohC showing the smallest increase. An opposite behaviour was observed with NO accumulation. Cadmium increased catalase activity in WT plants and decreased it in Atrboh mutants, while glutathione reductase and glycolate oxidase activities increased in Atrboh mutants, and superoxide dismutases were down‐regulated in AtrbohC. The GSH/GSSG and ASA/DHA couples were also affected by the treatment, principally in AtrbohC and AtrbohF, respectively. Cadmium translocation to the leaves was severely reduced in Atrboh mutants after 1 day of treatment and even after 5 days in AtrbohF. Similar results were observed for S, P, Ca, Zn and Fe accumulation, while an opposite trend was observed for K accumulation, except in AtrbohF. Thus, under Cd stress, RBOHs differentially regulate ROS metabolism, redox homeostasis and nutrient balance and could be of potential interest in biotechnology for the phytoremediation of polluted soils.