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Biological traits yield divergent phylogeographical patterns between two aphids living on the same host plants

Fang, Fang, Chen, Jing, Jiang, Li‐Yun, Chen, Rui, Qiao, Ge‐Xia
Journal of biogeography 2017 v.44 no.2 pp. 348-360
Salix, Tuberolachnus salignus, animals, asexual reproduction, branches, climate, cytochrome b, cytochrome-c oxidase, environmental factors, genetic analysis, genetic variation, host plants, leaves, mitochondrial DNA, models, multivariate analysis, niches, nuclear genome, phylogeography, population dynamics, population structure, sympatry, temperature, China
AIM: Animals' phylogeographical patterns are frequently explained by Pleistocene glacial fluctuations and topographical environments. However, species‐specific biological traits are thought to have profound impacts on distribution patterns, particularly in aphids. We hypothesize that the phylogeographical patterns and/or population dynamics of two sympatric aphids may be different due to their different reproductive modes and feeding sites, even though they share the same hosts and environmental conditions. LOCATION: China. METHODS: We explored our hypothesis in Chaitophorus saliniger and Tuberolachnus salignus, two aphids that share the same host plants (genus Salix) but differ biologically. Chaitophorus saliniger is characterized by alternating sexual and asexual reproduction and only feeds on willow leaves, whereas T. salignus has obligate asexual reproduction and feeds on trunks and branches. The genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the aphids were analysed based on both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and nuclear DNA (translation elongation factor 1 alpha). Ecological niche models (ENMs) were used to explore historical changes in distribution. The chief environmental variables that discriminate the different haplogroups were identified through multivariate statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were striking differences in the phylogeographical patterns between the species. The sexual C. saliniger exhibited higher genetic diversity and population variations than the asexual T. salignus. According to genetic analyses and ENMs, both species experienced glacial contraction and post‐glacial expansion. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the climatic differences between the divergent haplogroups were explained by principal components mainly loaded with temperature and elevation. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that species‐specific biological traits and historical climate fluctuations have both shaped the current phylogeographical patterns of both aphid species. Their distinct genetic diversity and population structures highlight the importance of intrinsic biological features in driving phylogeographical patterns.