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Risk profile and health vulnerability of female workers who pick cotton by organanochlorine pesticides from southern Punjab, Pakistan

Yasmeen, Humaira, Qadir, Abdul, Mumtaz, Mehvish, Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, Syed, Jabbir Hussain, Mahmood, Adeel, Jamil, Nadia, Nazar, Farva, Ali, Habib, Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal, Zhang, Gan
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2017 v.36 no.5 pp. 1193-1201
DDT (pesticide), HCH (pesticide), blood sampling, blood serum, breast milk, children, chlordane, cotton, females, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, milk, monitoring, neoplasms, reports, risk, risk profile, Pakistan
The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine‐pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener‐specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3 ppb and from 16.4 ppb to 747.1 ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener‐specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with age, time period of picking cotton, and number of children. Health risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1193–1201. © 2016 SETAC