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Evaluating the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for pesticide hazard screening

Author:
Glaberman, Scott, Padilla, Stephanie, Barron, Mace G.
Source:
Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2017 v.36 no.5 pp. 1221-1226
ISSN:
0730-7268
Subject:
Cyprinodon variegatus, Danio rerio, Lepomis macrochirus, Oncorhynchus mykiss, acute toxicity, analysis of covariance, data collection, fish, hazard characterization, humans, juveniles, lethal concentration 50, mechanism of action, neurotoxicity, neurotoxins, pesticides, prioritization, receptors, risk, screening, society
Abstract:
Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource‐intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r² = 0.28; p < 0.05) was found between zebrafish embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r² = 0.64; p < 0.05) when pesticide mode of action was factored into an analysis of covariance. This discrepancy is partly explained by the large number of neurotoxic pesticides in the dataset, supporting previous findings that commonly used fish embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo‐based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test for routine pesticide hazard assessment, although embryo testing could be used with other screening tools for testing prioritization. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1221–1226. © 2016 SETAC
Agid:
5718737