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A retrospective study comparing histopathological and immunopathological features of nasal planum dermatitis in 20 dogs with discoid lupus erythematosus or leishmaniosis

De Lucia, Michela, Mezzalira, Giorgia, Bardagí, Mar, Fondevila, Dolors M., Fabbri, Elisabetta, Fondati, Alessandra
Veterinary dermatology 2017 v.28 no.2 pp. 200
T-lymphocytes, antibodies, biopsy, dermatitis, dogs, histopathology, leishmaniasis, lupus erythematosus, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex, nose, parasites, plasma cells, retrospective studies
BACKGROUND: In areas endemic for leishmaniosis, discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and canine leishmaniosis (CanL) are the most common differential diagnoses for nasal planum erosive‐ulcerative dermatitis in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To compare histopathological and immunopathological features of canine nasal planum erosive‐ulcerative dermatitis with depigmentation due to DLE or CanL. ANIMALS: Nasal planum biopsies from dogs with nasal planum loss of architecture, depigmentation, swelling, erosions or ulcerations due to DLE (n = 14) or CanL (n = 6). METHODS: Sections of paraffin‐embedded samples, stained with haematoxylin and eosin were reviewed. Samples were examined using antibodies targeting T cells (CD3), B cells (CD20), macrophages (Mac387) and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC II). Histopathological and immunophenotypical findings were compared between DLE and CanL cases. RESULTS: Lichenoid and interface dermatitis were observed in both DLE and CanL cases. A nodular‐to‐diffuse, superficial and/or deep dermatitis with macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells was present only in CanL samples. CD20‐positive cells predominated over CD3‐ and Mac387‐positive cells in the two conditions. The percentage of dermal Mac387‐positive cells was higher in CanL compared to DLE samples and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In this study, similar histopathological and immunopathological findings were observed in dogs with nasal planum lesions due to DLE or CanL. Therefore, in areas endemic for leishmaniosis, the presence of the parasite should be investigated in canine nasal planum dermatitis showing clinical and histopathological features suggestive of DLE.