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Disinfectant and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains from Cattle Carcasses, Feces, and Hides and Ground Beef from the United States

Beier, Ross C., Poole, Toni L., Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M., Anderson, Robin C., Bischoff, Kenneth M., Hernandez, Charles A., Bono, James L., Arthur, Terrance M., Nagaraja, T. G., Crippen, Tawni L., Sheffield, Cynthia L., Nisbet, David J.
Journal of food protection 2013 v.76 no.1 pp. 6
Escherichia coli O157, acetic acid, antibiotic resistance, bacterial contamination, beef carcasses, benzalkonium chloride, cattle, chloramphenicol, chlorhexidine, citric acid, dairies, disinfectants, feces, food contamination, food processing plants, ground beef, hides and skins, lactic acid, multiple drug resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, quaternary ammonium compounds, restaurants, streptomycin, tetracycline, United States
The disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 344 Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from cattle carcasses, feces, and hides and ground beef from the United States were determined. A low prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed (14%). The highest prevalences of resistance were to sulfisoxazole (10.5%), tetracycline (9.9%), streptomycin (7%), and chloramphenicol (4.9%). Four strains were resistant to eight antibiotics (two strains from ground beef and one strain each from hide and preevisceration carcass swabs of cull cattle at harvest). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the E. coli O157:H7 strains revealed two major groups (designated 1 and 2) composed of 17 and 20 clusters, respectively. Clusters 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1G.1 were associated with multidrug-resistant strains. There was no observed correlation between disinfectant resistance and antibiotic resistance. Sixty-nine (20%) of the 344 strains were resistant to chlorhexidine or benzalkonium chloride or the MICs of benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride were elevated. Inducible resistance was observed at elevated concentrations of antibiotics (1.4%) and disinfectants (6.1%). The highest rate of disinfectant inducible resistance was to OdoBan, quaternary ammonium chlorides, and the surface disinfectants F25, FS512, and MG, which are used in dairies, restaurants, and food processing plants. High MICs (1,024 to 4,096 mg/ml) of acetic, lactic, and citric acids were found. The decreasing order of acid potency based on molar MICs (MICsmolar) was acetic, citric, and lactic acid. The correlation of the concentration of dissociated organic acids and MICS (MICsmolar) strongly suggests that the observed inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 was primarily due to dissociated forms of the acids.