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Beet curly top virus Strains Associated with Sugar Beet in Idaho, Oregon, and a Western U.S. Collection

Strausbaugh, Carl A., Eujayl, Imad A., Wintermantel, William M.
Plant disease 2017 v.101 no.8 pp. 1373-1382
Beet curly top virus, Circulifer tenellus, DNA, disease severity, leaves, mixed infection, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, sugar beet, California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon
Curly top of sugar beet is a serious, yield-limiting disease in semiarid production areas caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and transmitted by the beet leafhopper. One of the primary means of control for BCTV in sugar beet is host resistance but effectiveness of resistance can vary among BCTV strains. Strain prevalence among BCTV populations was last investigated in Idaho and Oregon during a 2006-to-2007 collection but changes in disease severity suggested a need for reevaluation. Therefore, 406 leaf samples symptomatic for curly top were collected from sugar beet plants in commercial sugar beet fields in Idaho and Oregon from 2012 to 2015. DNA was isolated and BCTV strain composition was investigated based on polymerase chain reaction assays with strain-specific primers for the Severe (Svr) and California/Logan (CA/Logan) strains and primers that amplified a group of Worland (Wor)-like strains. The BCTV strain distribution averaged 2% Svr, 30% CA/Logan, and 87% Wor-like (16% had mixed infections), which differed from the previously published 2006-to-2007 collection (87% Svr, 7% CA/Logan, and 60% Wor-like; 59% mixed infections) based on a contingency test (P < 0.0001). Whole-genome sequencing (GenBank accessions KT276895 to KT276920 and KX867015 to KX867057) with overlapping primers found that the Wor-like strains included Wor, Colorado and a previously undescribed strain designated Kimberly1. Results confirm a shift from Svr being one of the dominant BCTV strains in commercial sugar beet fields in 2006 to 2007 to becoming undetectable at times during recent years.