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Soil pollution fingerprints of children playgrounds in Sarajevo city, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sapcanin, Aida, Cakal, Mirsada, Jacimovic, Zeljko, Pehlic, Ekrem, Jancan, Gordan
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.12 pp. 10949-10954
arsenic, cadmium, calcium carbonate, children, chromium, cobalt, copper, environmental law, fluorine, gas chromatography, health effects assessments, heavy metals, humus, iron, lead, mass spectrometry, mercury, microwave treatment, molybdenum, nickel, pH, planning, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, potassium chloride, selenium, soil, soil pollution, spectrometers, wet digestion method, zinc, Bosnia-Herzegovina
This is the first study, 10 years after the war activities, to report about the content of heavy metals and metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in samples of soils from selected playgrounds in Sarajevo. Due to the fact that children are in direct contact with surface soils, it has been recommended that children’s playgrounds should be given special consideration in this respect. Basic properties (pH in H₂O, pH in 1 mol dm⁻³ KCl, humus, and CaCO₃) of the examined soils were determined. Samples for the determination of heavy metals and metalloids were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion and determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Fluorine was determined potentiometrically. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used for determination of PAHs and PCBs. Determined contents (mg kg⁻¹) for Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Fe, Se, As, B, and F were in the ranges from: 0.031 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05; 26.1 ± 2.5 to 47.7 ± 4.5; 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.50 ± 0.08; 26.2 to 50; 19.5 ± 1.6 to 33.3 ± 2.7; 12.8 ± 1.8 to 31.9 ± 4.5; 56.0 ± 4.0 to 89.0 ± 6.5; 6.7 ± 0.6 to10.6 ± 1.0; <0.8; 3.05 to 7.35; 1.98 to 2.60; 6.5 ± 0.8 to 17.2 ± 2.0; 0.4 to 3.6, and 286 to 575, respectively. The total PAHs ranged between 0.184 ± 0.32 mg kg⁻¹ and 7.983 ± 1.389 mg kg⁻¹. The total PCBs was <0.002 mg kg⁻¹. Our preliminary results may contribute to more accurate health risk assessments of the soils, and may be included in projects planning children’s health risk assessments and adopting environmental legislation which has not been sufficiently regulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina so far.