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Aldo-ketoreductase 1 (AKR1) improves seed longevity in tobacco and rice by detoxifying reactive cytotoxic compounds generated during ageing

Nisarga, KodadinneNarayana, Vemanna, RamuS, Kodekallu Chandrashekar, Babitha, Rao, Hanumantha, Vennapusa, Amaranatha Reddy, Narasimaha, Ashwini, Makarla, Udayakumar, Basavaiah, Mohan Raju
Rice 2017 v.10 no.1 pp. 11
Amadori products, Oryza sativa, carbonyl compounds, cytotoxicity, gene overexpression, genotype, germination, glycation, lipid peroxidation, longevity, malondialdehyde, plant establishment, proteins, rice, seedlings, seeds, tobacco, transgenic plants, viability, vigor
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of seed viability is an important factor for seedling vigour and plant establishment. Lipid peroxidation mediated reactive carbonyl compounds (RCC’s) and non-enzymatic modifications of proteins through Maillard and Amadori products reduce seed viability and seedling vigour. RESULTS: In this study, the relevance of RCCs on genotypic variation in rice seed viability and overexpression of an aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme that detoxify cytotoxic compounds to improve seed viability and vigour was studied. Physiological and biochemical approaches were integrated to quantify the variation in seed viability and seedling vigour in rice genotypes after exposing to ageing treatment. AKR1 was overexpressed in a susceptible rice genotype and tobacco to study the relevance of reduced RCC’s on seed viability and seedling vigour. The glycation and lipid peroxidation compounds accumulated after accelerated ageing treatments in rice genotypes. The accumulation of malondialdehyde, methyl glyoxal, Maillard and Amadori products affected the seed viability and germination as they showed a significant negative relationship. The transgenic rice and tobacco seeds expressing AKR1 showed lower levels of cytotoxic compounds and glycation products that resulted in improved seed viability and seedling vigour in rice and tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that, reactive cytotoxic compounds affect the seed viability during storage. Detoxification of reactive cytotoxic compounds by Aldo-keto reductases is one of the mechanisms to improve the seed longevity during storage.