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A novel two-step sequential bioaccessibility test for potentially toxic elements in inhaled particulate matter transported into the gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance

Alpofead, Jawad Ali Hussein, Davidson, Christine M., Littlejohn, David
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2017 v.409 no.12 pp. 3165-3174
arsenic, bioavailability, breathing, cadmium, chromium, copper, filters, gastric juice, humans, ions, iron, lead, manganese, mucus, nickel, particulates, soil, stomach, toxic substances, zinc
A novel two-step sequential extraction has been developed to assess the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in airborne particulate matter following inhalation and transport into the human gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance. A new artificial mucus fluid (AMF) was used to determine the bioaccessible potentially toxic element (PTE) fraction in the upper airways, in sequence with the simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) or the stomach phase of the unified bioaccessibility method (gastric fluid only) (UBMG). Filter dynamic measurement system TX40 filters smeared with soil reference material (BGS RM 102) were used as test samples. Analysis was performed by ICP-MS. Comparison between results obtained for soil alone and when the soil was supported on TX40 filters indicated that the presence of the substrate did not affect the extraction efficiency, although a large Zn blank was detected. The sequential AMF→SBET extraction liberated similar amounts of Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn to the SBET alone; but significantly less Cd; and significantly more As, Cr, Cu and Pb. The sequential AMF→UBMG extraction liberated similar amounts of Cd, Cr, Mn and Zn to the UBMG alone, but significantly less As, Fe and Ni; and significantly more Cu and Pb. Enhanced extractability was due to the greater quantities of exchangeable ions and complexing agents present. Adoption of a two-step sequential extraction (AMF followed by either the SBET or the UBMG) is recommended because it is more representative of biological conditions and avoids overestimation or underestimation of bioaccessible PTE concentrations. Graphical Abstract Simulated PM₁₀ sample: BGS RM 102 ironstone soil on TX40 filter