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Characterization of Ostertagia ostertagi annexin-like proteins at different developmental stages

Pooja Sharma, Mark Jenkins, Dante Zarlenga, Ray Fetterer, Zhengguo Xiao, Wenbin Tuo
Parasitology research 2017 v.116 no.5 pp. 1515-1522
Ostertagia ostertagi, Western blotting, abomasum, absorbance, adults, amino acid sequences, antibodies, calves, eukaryotic cells, gastric mucosa, host-parasite relationships, immune response, larvae, leukocytes, parasites, receptors, staining, temperate zones, vaccines
Ostertagiosis remains an economically important parasitic disease in cattle in the temperate regions of the world. Repeated exposures to Ostertagia ostertagi in calves cause significant pathology in the abomasum but elicit little protective immunity. The larvae use the host’s gastric glands as a niche for development, where the parasite completes its parasitic stages, while in the gastric glands, the larvae must down-regulate the host inflammatory immune responses. Annexin (ANX) A1, commonly found in most eukaryotes, is heavily involved in controlling anti-inflammatory responses by binding receptors on leukocytes. We hypothesized, therefore, that parasite proteins of the ANX family may be involved in host-parasite interactions during ostertagiosis. BLASTN search with the bovine ANXA1 identified two families of Oos-ANX like proteins (Oos-ANXL), each of which was highly conserved at the genetic level and identical at the amino acid sequence level. Oos-ANXL-1 is encoded by two transcripts and Oos-ANXL-2 by 20 transcripts. The present study characterized one Oos-ANXL, representing the most abundant Oos-ANXL, which was further defined as Oost-ANXL-2.1. Oos-ANXL-2.1 with a coding sequence of 519 bp was PCR-amplified, cloned, and expressed. Oos-ANXL-2.1 was immunolocalized to both L3 and adult, but not L4. The staining appeared to be associated with the gut and hypodermis in L3, but it was specifically localized to the hypodermis in adult worms. Western blots detected three protein bands in parasite lysates using anti-recombinant Oos-ANXL-2.1 antibody. Integrated optical density for each of the 3 Oos-ANXL-2s or the total Oos-ANXL-2s detected by Western blots (P < 0.05) was higher in adult worms than in L3 or L4. The results indicate that the production of Oos-ANXL-2s is developmentally regulated and most abundant in the adult worm. This rather large family of proteins could be a potential vaccine target against O. ostertagi infection and warrants further investigation.