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In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks

Singh, Nirbhay K., Saini, S. P. S., Singh, Harkirat, Jyoti,, Sharma, S. K., Rath, S. S.
Experimental & applied acarology 2017 v.71 no.3 pp. 303-317
Hyalomma anatolicum, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, acaricidal properties, acaricides, acarology, cattle industry, equations, in vitro studies, larvae, lethal concentration 50, mortality, plant extracts, rhizomes, seeds, subtropics, tick control, tick-borne diseases, ticks, India
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14–21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC₅₀) and 95% (LC₉₅) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07–0.072) and 0.135% (0.13–0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.