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Physicochemical properties and biological activities of honeys from different geographical and botanical origins in Iran
- Mahmoodi-Khaledi, Elaheh, Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús, Bakhouche, Abdelhakim, Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran, Sadeghian, Issa, Segura-Carretero, Antonio
- European food research & technology 2017 v.243 no.6 pp. 1019-1030
- Escherichia coli, Gram-negative bacteria, anti-infective agents, antibacterial properties, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, color, functional foods, honey, ingredients, minimum inhibitory concentration, Iran
- In recent years, the pharmaceutical interest in honey due to its well-known health properties has increased. In the present study, 33 Iranian honey samples from different geographical and floral origins were characterized for their physicochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Variations of the quality parameters, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial effects were correlated with the geographical and botanical origins to establish the best source of honeys analyzed. Honey samples collected in south Iran showed the highest TPC. Antioxidant activities varied markedly among the honey samples, even in honeys within the same floral origin. Comparative assessments of honeys indicated the marked correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Color intensity (ABS₄₅₀) of honeys was also found to be correlated with total phenolic content and the overall antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed minimum inhibitory concentration values from 6.25 to 100% (w/v). Bacteria sensitivity to the antimicrobial activity of honeys followed the order E. coli > S. aureus > P. aeruginosa > E. faecalis. Remarkable differences were pointed out in the ability of each honey sample to elicit antimicrobial responses. Besides, bacterial sensitivity to honey samples was up to 16 times higher in some samples than the expected results based on previous studies in the literature. Consequently, Iranian honeys may be sources of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that could be used as food antioxidants or as ingredients in nutraceutical products due to their interesting pharmaceutical properties.