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Cultivation of mushrooms for production of food biofortified with lithium

Mleczek, Mirosław, Siwulski, Marek, Rzymski, Piotr, Budzyńska, Sylwia, Gąsecka, Monika, Kalač, Pavel, Niedzielski, Przemysław
European food research & technology 2017 v.243 no.6 pp. 1097-1104
Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, acetates, adverse effects, behavior modification, biofortification, food fortification, fruiting bodies, growth retardation, humans, lithium, mushroom growing, mushrooms, mycelium, spectrometers, spectroscopy
It has recently been suggested that food fortification with Li is worth serious consideration as a strategy to support psychiatric treatment and decrease violent behaviors in the general population. Therefore, the present study developed the cultivation of three commercially important mushroom species, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, on substrates enriched with Li (0.25–1.0 mM) in the form of acetate or carbonate. The growth of the mycelium colony, production of fruiting bodies and accumulation of Li were evaluated. Analysis of Li was performed using an optical emission spectrometry with excitation by inductively coupled plasma using an Agilent 5100 ICP-OES spectrometer. As found, Li₂CO₃ was a more bioavailable form although it had a greater adverse effect on mushroom growth. Substrate supplementation with CH₃COOLi resulted in lower or no growth retardation but decreased uptake of Li. The most promising results were obtained for G. lucidum, which accumulated up to 73.58 ± 10.87 (Li₂CO₃) and 25.59 ± 9.98 (CH₃COOLi) mg Li kg⁻¹ dry mass. Given the popularity of the investigated mushroom species in various cultures as food or alternative medicines, their Li-biofortified forms could potentially find social acceptance. The concentrations of Li accumulated in fruiting bodies were not high enough for application in psychiatric treatments but could potentially support the daily intake of Li for behavior modification or health beneficiary purposes. Further studies are necessary to fully investigate the safety implications of Li-enriched mushrooms for humans.