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An ultrasound-assisted procedure for fast screening of mobile fractions of Cd, Pb and Ni in soil. Insight into method optimization and validation
- Leśniewska, Barbara, Krymska, Marta, Świerad, Ewelina, Wiater, Józefa, Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.24 pp. 25093-25104
- atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, fractionation, heavy metals, lead, nickel, screening, soil separates, ultrasonic treatment, uncertainty, Poland
- A fast ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction (UASE) procedure for the determination of cadmium, lead and nickel fractions in soil was developed and fully validated. The working parameters of an ultrasound probe were optimized by comparing the content of metals in soil extracts obtained by the UASE procedure with that obtained by the conventional (with the aid of a vertical rotor) modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. The content of metals in soil fractions was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The total time of extraction of metals from soil was shorten from 48 h to 27 min (total sonication time). The trueness of the developed method was confirmed by analysis of the certified reference material BCR-701. In order to indicate critical points of the developed UASE method, uncertainties of fractionation results were calculated and compared with those calculated for conventional modified BCR procedure. The method usefulness was tested for the determination of metal fractions in different types of soil collected in the Podlasie Province (Poland). The proposed procedure could be used for fast screening of mobile fractions of several heavy metals in soil.