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Chemical assessment of lead, cadmium, nitrate, and nitrite intakes with daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages in Krakow, Poland

Pysz, Katarzyna, Leszczyńska, Teresa, Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata, Kopeć, Aneta
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.24 pp. 25200-25209
acceptable daily intake, adolescents, atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, children, colorimetry, diet, lead, nitrates, nitrites, Poland
The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0.15 to 22.59 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/week. The average cadmium intake by children and adolescents ranged between 3.09 ± 0.21 and 20.36 ± 2.21 μg/kg bw/week and, for all orphanages, exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) level. Daily intake of nitrates and nitrites ranged respectively from 27 to 289 % and from 9 to 99 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The youngest children, with lower body mass, were particularly sensitive to the excessive intakes of cadmium and nitrates.