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Heavy metals in surface sediments of the shallow lakes in eastern China: their relations with environmental factors and anthropogenic activities

Zhang, Wenqiang, Jin, Xin, Di, Zhenzhen, Zhu, Xiaolei, Shan, Baoqing
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.24 pp. 25364-25373
anthropogenic activities, aquatic environment, atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, carbon, chromium, copper, environmental factors, gross domestic product, heavy metals, industrialization, industry, lakes, lead, nickel, nitrogen, phosphorus, pollution, population growth, risk, sediments, selenium, sulfur, urbanization, zinc, China
The aquatic environment is affected by heavy metal pollution. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that environmental factors and anthropogenic activities influence the distributions and the risks posed by heavy metals in surface sediments in shallow lakes in eastern China, which is an area affected by rapid urbanization, industrialization, and population growth. Total Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn concentrations in sediment samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The I gā‚‘ā‚’ showed that sediments in the lakes were moderately polluted with Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and the EF method showed that Cd and Se were significantly enriched in lakes. The heavy metals were found to pose moderate risks in most of the lakes, except for Gaoyou Lake, Honghu Lake, Poyang Lake, and Weishan Lake. The RI method indicated that very high risks were posed in Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake. Cd was found to pose much higher levels of risk than the other metals. Significant correlations were found between the heavy metal concentrations and the total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations. The gross domestic product represented anthropogenic activities well. The gross domestic product of an area and the gross domestic products of primary and secondary industries in an area all had significant relationships with the concentrations of Cu and Pb, indicating that anthropogenic activities have different impacts on pollution with different heavy metals. The gross domestic product index was found to be a driving force behind the pollution of lakes with heavy metals.