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Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems

García-Salgado, Sara, Quijano, M. Ángeles
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.24 pp. 24567-24577
EDTA (chelating agent), acetic acid, atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, calcium chloride, chromium, copper, correlation, lead, microwave treatment, mining, nickel, pH, soil, soil sampling, ultrasonics, zinc, Spain
Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L⁻¹ calcium chloride (CaCl₂), 0.43 mol L⁻¹ acetic acid (CH₃COOH), and 0.05 mol L⁻¹ ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl₂ and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH₃COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl₂ and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH₃COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.