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Highly transparent and conductive indium-doped zinc oxide films deposited at low substrate temperature by spray pyrolysis from water-based solutions
- Edinger, S., Bansal, N., Bauch, M., Wibowo, R. A., Újvári, G., Hamid, R., Trimmel, G., Dimopoulos, T.
- Journal of materials science 2017 v.52 no.14 pp. 8591-8602
- electrodes, energy efficiency, indium, irradiation, photovoltaic cells, pyrolysis, solvents, temperature, texture, ultraviolet radiation, zinc acetate, zinc oxide
- In this paper, indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) films were grown by spray pyrolysis, using zinc acetate and indium acetylacetonate precursors. The focus was on developing a solution recipe based on water as solvent, with only minor acetic acid content, as well as keeping the substrate temperature as low as possible—at 360 °C. The process is therefore environment friendly and energy efficient. Despite the challenging conditions, the resulting IZO films were highly transparent and conductive. Their texture deviates strongly from the (002) texture of ZnO and depends on the indium content, which also influences the resistivity. The latter attains its minimum for an indium concentration of 4 at.% in the solution and decreases for increasing film thickness, reaching the value of (5.0 ± 0.1) × 10⁻³ Ω cm, mainly due to the increase in carrier mobility. The stability of the resistivity after high dose of UV irradiation was found to increase with the carrier density and the film thickness. Thick, highly doped films show minimal resistivity modification even after a total dose of 12.1 kJ/cm² UVA/UVB irradiation. Finally, to demonstrate its applicability in devices, the IZO electrode was used for the fabrication of a lead-perovskite absorber solar cell, yielding an energy conversion efficiency of 6% and 910 mV open-circuit voltage.