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Subtype analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from municipal and domestic raw wastewaters in Iran
- Hatam-Nahavandi, Kareem, Mohebali, Mehdi, Mahvi, Amir-Hossein, Keshavarz, Hossein, Mirjalali, Hamed, Rezaei, Sasan, Meamar, Ahmad-Reza, Rezaeian, Mostafa
- Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.14 pp. 12740-12747
- Giardia lamblia, fluorescent antibody technique, genes, genotype, giardin protein, glutamate dehydrogenase, livestock, loci, monoclonal antibodies, slaughterhouses, triose-phosphate isomerase, wastewater, Iran
- A total of 54 raw wastewater samples collected from three urban treatment plants and two slaughterhouses in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for the presence of the Giardia cysts using immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. To characterize the cysts at the molecular level, the three genetic loci were amplified and sequenced. The assemblages A (37.5 %) and E (58.3 %) were detected in livestock wastewater samples. Assemblage A, which is composed of only G. duodenalis genotype, was detected in 100 % of urban wastewater samples. The subassemblages A2, A3, A-I, A-II, and E3 were identified with β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes. This study is the first to report on G. duodenalis genotypes in aquatic environmental samples in Iran.