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CCL2 and CCL5 driven attraction of CD172a+ monocytic cells during an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in equine nasal mucosa and the impact of two migration inhibitors, rosiglitazone (RSG) and quinacrine (QC)

Zhao, Jing, Poelaert, KatrienC. K., Van Cleemput, Jolien, Nauwynck, HansJ.
Veterinary research 2017 v.48 no.1 pp. 14
Equid herpesvirus 1, blood circulation, chemokine CCL2, chemokine CCL5, epithelial cells, explants, fluorescent antibody technique, horses, lymph, nasal mucosa, nervous system diseases, pathogenesis, quinacrine, respiratory tract diseases, virus replication, viruses
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. Besides epithelial cells, CD172a⁺ monocytic cells become infected with EHV-1 in the respiratory mucosa and transport the virus from the apical side of the epithelium to the lamina propria en route to the lymph and blood circulation. Whether CD172a⁺ monocytic cells are specifically recruited to the infection sites in order to pick up virus is unknown. In our study, equine nasal mucosa explants were inoculated with EHV-1 neurological strains 03P37 and 95P105 or the non-neurological strains 97P70 and 94P247 and the migration of monocytic cells was examined by immunofluorescence. Further, the role of monokines CCL2 and CCL5 was determined and the effect of migration inhibitors rosiglitazone (RSG) or quinacrine was analyzed. It was shown that with neurological strains but not with the non-neurological strains, CD172a⁺ cells specifically migrated towards EHV-1 infected regions and that CCL2 and CCL5 were involved. CCL2 started to be expressed in infected epithelial cells at 24 h post-incubation (hpi) and CCL5 at 48 hpi, which corresponded with the CD172a⁺ migration. RSG treatment of EHV-1-inoculated equine nasal mucosa had no effect on the virus replication in the epithelium, but decreased the migration of CD172a⁺ cells in the lamina propria. Overall, these findings bring new insights in the early pathogenesis of EHV-1 infections, illustrate differences between neurological and non-neurological strains and show the way for EHV-1 treatment.