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Molecular identification and mycotoxin production of Lilium longiflorum-associated fusaria isolated from two geographic locations in the United States

Rajmohan, Nimmi, Gianfagna, Thomas J., Meca, Giuseppe, Moretti, Antonio, Zhang, Ning
European journal of plant pathology 2011 v.131 no.4 pp. 631-642
Fusarium fujikuroi, soil, internal transcribed spacers, bulbs, fumonisins, Lilium longiflorum, genes, new species, pathogens, crops, Oregon, New Jersey
Fusarium diseases of Liliaceae crops cause significant losses worldwide. Yet some Fusarium species are found in planta without causing disease or even in a symbiotic relationship with its host. In this study we identified and characterized the Fusarium species isolated from soil, and from healthy and diseased bulbs of Lilium longiflorum grown in New Jersey and Oregon in the United States. The predominant Fusarium species from the Oregon location were F. solani (74%) and F. oxysporum (20%), whereas F. concentricum (43%) and F. proliferatum (26%), both belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC), were the most commonly isolated species from New Jersey. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. concentricum associated with Liliaceae. All of the isolates were characterized with sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The 24 GFSC isolates were further characterized with mating type, mating population, and mycotoxin analysis. Results showed that all GFSC isolates were MAT-2, suggesting that the populations may be asexually reproducing in the region examined. The majority of the GFSC isolates produced beauvericin. Enniatin A, B, B1 and fusaproliferin were produced by a few isolates. Enniatin A1 and fumonisins were not detected in any of the isolates. Although F. oxysporum and F. solani are well-known bulb pathogens, many isolates of F. oxysporum and F. solani, and all of the F. concentricum and F. proliferatum were isolated from asymptomatic bulbs, suggesting their endophytic association with lilies.