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Regulation of the H+-ATP synthase by IF1: a role in mitohormesis

Esparza-Moltó, Pau B., Nuevo-Tapioles, Cristina, Cuezva, José M.
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2017 v.74 no.12 pp. 2151-2166
adenosine triphosphate, adenosinetriphosphatase, cell viability, chemical elements, energy, energy metabolism, enzyme activity, gene overexpression, glycolysis, homeostasis, longevity, mice, mitochondria, molecular biology, neoplasms, rapamycin, reactive oxygen species, signal transduction, transgenic animals
The mitochondrial H⁺-ATP synthase is a primary hub of cellular homeostasis by providing the energy required to sustain cellular activity and regulating the production of signaling molecules that reprogram nuclear activity needed for adaption to changing cues. Herein, we summarize findings regarding the regulation of the activity of the H⁺-ATP synthase by its physiological inhibitor, the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) and their functional role in cellular homeostasis. First, we outline the structure and the main molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of the enzyme. Next, we describe the molecular biology of IF1 and summarize the regulation of IF1 expression and activity as an inhibitor of the H⁺-ATP synthase emphasizing the role of IF1 as a main driver of energy rewiring and cellular signaling in cancer. Findings in transgenic mice in vivo indicate that the overexpression of IF1 is sufficient to reprogram energy metabolism to an enhanced glycolysis and activate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling pathways that promote cell survival. These findings are placed in the context of mitohormesis, a program in which a mild mitochondrial stress triggers adaptive cytoprotective mechanisms that improve lifespan. In this regard, we emphasize the role played by the H⁺-ATP synthase in modulating signaling pathways that activate the mitohormetic response, namely ATP, ROS and target of rapamycin (TOR). Overall, we aim to highlight the relevant role of the H⁺-ATP synthase and of IF1 in cellular physiology and the need of additional studies to decipher their contributions to aging and age-related diseases.