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The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

Lonneke Vervelde, Darrell R. Kapczynski
Animal Influenza 2nd edition 2016 v.2nd Edition no.2017 pp. 135-152
B-lymphocytes, Influenza A virus, T-lymphocytes, antibodies, antibody formation, antigens, avian influenza, cell-mediated immunity, cytokines, gene rearrangement, humoral immunity, innate immunity, interferons, neutralization tests, receptors, thymus gland, virus replication, viruses
Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are capable of producing innate responses to avian influenza. The adaptive immune responses can be divided into two main types, humoral and cellular. Humoral immunity includes the production of antibodies from bursal-derived cells (B-cells) that function in virus-neutralization and cell-mediated immunity (CMI), which is dependent on thymus-derived cells (T-cells). Cell-mediated immunity utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B- and T- cells that are generated by random processes of gene rearrangement to induce different mechanisms of immune reaction. B-cells are designed to interact with major histocompatibility class II molecules, which present antigen for antibody production. This chapter will review the immune response to avian influenza.