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Phytoavailability of Cr in Silene vulgaris: the role of soil, plant genotype and bacterial rhizobiome
- García-Gonzalo, P., Pradas del Real, A.E., Pirredda, M., Gismera, M.J., Lobo, M.C., Pérez-Sanz, A.
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017
- Pseudomonas fluorescens, Silene vulgaris, alkaline soils, bacterial communities, bioavailability, calcareous soils, chromium, cluster analysis, community structure, correspondence analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, genotype, greenhouse experimentation, organic matter, pH, phytoremediation, pollution, rhizosphere, rhizosphere bacteria, ribosomal RNA, roots, samplers, sludge, soil solution, soil water
- Understanding the metal behavior at the soil-root interface is of utmost significance for a successful implementation of phytoremediation. In this study, we investigated the differences in chromium (Cr) uptake, chemical changes in soil solution and the shifts in rhizosphere bacterial communities of two genotypes of Silene vulgaris (SV21, SV38) with different tolerance to Cr. A greenhouse experiment was performed in two soils that differed on pH and organic matter (OM) content. An industrial sludge with high content in Cr was used as pollution source. The soil solution in the rhizosphere was sample by Rhizon Soil Moisture Samplers. The total concentration of Cr reached the highest values in soil solution samplers from calcareous soils with poor contents in OM. Plants grown in this soil also increased the Cr uptake in roots of both genotypes, but the concentration was higher in genotype SV-38 than in SV21. The clustering analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA fragments revealed major differences in bacterial community structure related to Cr pollution, followed by soil type and finally, plant genotype. Diversity indices based on DGGE profiles were the highest in alkaline soil, and between genotypes, values were significantly greater in SV38. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that changes in bacterial community structure of rhizosphere were highly correlated with total Cr concentration and soil solution pH. The isolation and identification of S. vulgaris bacterial rhizosphere revealed a different composition according to soil type and plant genotype. Results suggested the potential role of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Cr mobilization and therefore, on enhanced metal bioavailability and may provide a starting point for further studies aimed at the combined use of tolerant plants and selected metal mobilizing rhizobacteria, in the microbial-assisted phytoremediation of Cr-polluted soils.