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The Oral Microbiome of Smokeless Tobacco Users in Latvia Section B Natural, exact, and applied sciences =

Sintija, Miļuna, Rostoka, Dagnija, Skadińš, Ingus, Reinis, Aigars, Priedīte, Viktorija, Koka, Rudīte, Lauva, Didzis, Kroiča, Juta
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences 2017 v.71 no.1-2 pp. 33-37
adolescents, adverse effects, athletes, biofilm, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, heart, microbiome, microorganisms, neoplasms, nicotine, pathogens, periodontal diseases, saliva, smokeless tobacco, Latvia, Sweden
Snus is a tobacco product containing nicotine and is widely used in Sweden. Now it is becoming more and more popular among young athletes and teenagers in Latvia, even though it is forbidden for sale in the European Union. The use of snus is considered to induce various oral illnesses, especially periodontal diseases, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Comparison of the microbiome of saliva and tooth biofilm in snus tobacco users with that in people who never use snus showed that, the number and diversity of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms was much higher in samples taken from snus users. The observed features of the oral microbiome, such as the presence of periodontal pathogens and their high concentration, may have adverse effect on periodontal tissues of snus users and their general health in the future.