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Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of Chromium and antioxidant responses in juvenile rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus

Yuan, Cong, Li, Meng, Zheng, Yao, Zhou, Ying, Wu, Feili, Wang, Zaizhao
Aquatic toxicology 2017 v.190 pp. 174-180
Gobiocypris rarus, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, catalase, chromium, exposure pathways, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, juveniles, larvae, malondialdehyde, minnows, proteins, superoxide dismutase, ubiquitination
Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL−1 Cr6+ for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined. The results indicated that G. rarus juveniles had a strong ability to resist the Cr accumulation by Cr6+ exposure and to remove Cr from the body in clean water. In addition, GST and MT proteins may be involved in the detoxification of Cr6+. Moreover, Cr6+-induced GST detoxification in G. rarus juveniles might be accomplished through the Nrf2-mediated regulation of gene expressions. The antioxidant enzyme systems exhibited a response mechanism of the protective enzymes in organisms when they are subjected to external environmental stress. Two weeks of Cr6+ treatments could have led to the damage and consecutive degradation of antioxidant enzymes via ubiquitination, and MT proteins could be involved in protecting the activity of these enzymes. The capability of antioxidant enzyme systems to recover from the Cr6+-induced damage was strong in G. rarus juveniles after Cr6+ was removed from the water.