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White grape pomace extracts, obtained by a sequential enzymatic plus ethanol-based extraction, exert antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities

Ferri, Maura, Rondini, Greta, Calabretta, Maria Maddalena, Michelini, Elisa, Vallini, Veronica, Fava, Fabio, Roda, Aldo, Minnucci, Giordano, Tassoni, Annalisa
New biotechnology 2017 v.39 pp. 51-58
Vitis vinifera, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, byproducts, cosmetics, cultivars, drying, enzymatic treatment, ethanol, flavanols, functional foods, grape pomace, grape pomace extracts, grapes, phytopharmaceuticals, polyphenols, solubilization, tannins, winemaking
The present work aimed at optimizing a two-step enzymatic plus solvent-based process for the recovery of bioactive compounds from white grape (Vitis vinifera L., mix of Trebbiano and Verdicchio cultivars) pomace, the winemaking primary by-product. Phenolic compounds solubilised by water enzyme-assisted and ethanol-based extractions of wet (WP) and dried (DP) pomace were characterised for composition and tested for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Ethanol treatment led to higher phenol yields than water extraction, while DP samples showed the highest capacity of releasing polyphenols, most probably as a positive consequence of the pomace drying process. Different compositions and bioactivities were observed between water and ethanol extracts and among different treatments and for the first time the anti-tyrosinase activity of V. vinifera pomace extracts, was here reported. Enzymatic treatments did not significantly improve the total amount of solubilised compounds; Celluclast in DP led to the recovery of extracts enriched in specific compounds, when compared to control. The best extracts (enzymatic plus ethanol treatment total levels) were obtained from DP showing significantly higher amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols and tannins and exerted higher antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities than WP total extracts. Conversely, anti-inflammatory capacity was only detected in water (with and without enzyme) extracts, with WP samples showing on average a higher activity than DP. The present findings demonstrate that white grape pomace constitute a sustainable source for the extraction of phytochemicals that might be exploited as functional ingredients in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.