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Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to optimize lipid production through nutrient management

Lari, Zahra, Moradi-kheibari, Narges, Ahmadzadeh, Hossein, Abrishamchi, Parvaneh, Moheimani, Navid R., Murry, Marcia A.
Journal of applied phycology 2016 v.28 no.6 pp. 3235-3250
biodiesel, biomass, bioprocess engineering, cellulose, cosmetics, culture media, embryophytes, environmental factors, fatty acid composition, feed supplements, feedstocks, iron, lipid content, microalgae, nutrient content, nutrient management, nutrients, pH, photosynthesis, pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein content, silicon, sodium chloride
Microalgae have been used commercially as a feedstock for the production of high-value compounds, pigments, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements. In addition, because of their rapid growth rates, high photosynthetic efficiency, and high lipid and protein content, commodity products including biodiesel, feed supplements, and polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from algal biomass are of current interest. Since microalgae lack non-photosynthetic structures and float in water, they do not need massive amounts of structural cellulose found in land plants. Thus, under optimal culture conditions, some oleaginous species can allocate up to 70 % of their biomass to lipids. Lipid production and its regulation in microalgae are species-specific and influenced by environmental conditions. Various strategies have been developed to improve lipid productivity and fatty acid composition to meet specific production goals. Manipulation of physiochemical parameters, trophic modes, and nutrient levels, known as process engineering, is a simple approach that leads to desired alterations in the biochemical composition of algal biomass, including lipid quantity and quality. In this paper, we review the effects of manipulating biochemical parameters such as necessary nutrients (C, N, P, S, Fe, and Si), NaCl concentration, and pH of culture medium to optimize lipid content and profile in some algae strains with commercial potential.