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In Reply to the Cannabis Experts: Plastome Phylogenies Support the Parallel Hypothesis for Species Concepts in the Cannabaceae (sensu stricto)
- Boutain, Jeffrey R.
- The botanical review 2016 v.82 no.4 pp. 349-358
- Cannabis, Humulus, age determination, chloroplast genome, fossils, loci, models, phylogeny
- Conundrums of the Cannabaceae (sensu stricto) are reconsidered. Here a parallel hypothesis regarding both Cannabis and Humulus is supported by the conserved locus of the whole chloroplast genome and models of nucleotide evolution with both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenies. With a review of fossils and molecular age estimates for the diversification of the family, an origin during the late Cretaceous is highlighted. Thus, an overhaul of taxonomic concepts is warranted for extant, historical, and extinct specimens.