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Improvement in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by the inhibition of polyphenolics released during wounding of cotyledonary node explants

Yadav, Reena, Mehrotra, Meenakshi, Singh, Aditya K., Niranjan, Abhishek, Singh, Rani, Sanyal, Indraneel, Lehri, Alok, Pande, Veena, Amla, D. V.
Protoplasma 2017 v.254 no.1 pp. 253-269
Agrobacterium radiobacter, Cicer arietinum, catechol oxidase, chickpeas, chlorogenic acid, coculture, cysteine, enzymatic browning, excision, explants, gallic acid, genes, hypersensitive response, leaching, metabolites, molecular weight, osmium, pathogens, polyphenols, quercetin, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, salicylic acid, sodium, thiosulfates, tissues, transfer DNA, viability
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been performed using cotyledonary node explants (CNs), which release phenolics upon excision that are detrimental to the viability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and result in low transformation frequency. Twelve low molecular weight phenolic compounds and salicylic acid were identified in the exudates released upon excision during the preparation of cotyledonary nodes by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Zone inhibition assays performed with the explant exudates released at periodic intervals after excision showed the inhibition of A. tumefaciens. Agroinoculation of freshly excised cotyledonary nodes of chickpea showed 98–99 % inhibition of colony forming units (cfu). Osmium tetraoxide fixation of excised tissues showed enhanced accumulation of phenolics in the sub-epidermal regions causing enzymatic browning, affecting the viability and performance of A. tumefaciens for T-DNA delivery. The periodic analysis of exudates released from excised CNs showed enhanced levels of gallic acid (0.2945 ± 0.014 μg/g), chlorogenic acid (0.0978 ± 0.0046 μg/g), and quercetin (0.0971 ± 0.0046 μg/g) fresh weight, which were detrimental to A. tumefaciens. Quantitative assays and the elution profile showed the maximum leaching of phenolics, flavonoids, and salicylic acid immediately after the excision of explants and continued till 4 to 8 h post-excision. Pre-treatment of excised explants with inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase like L-cysteine, DTT, and sodium thiosulfate before co-cultivation showed the recovery of A. tumefaciens cfu, decreased the accumulation of phenolics, and improved transformation frequency. Our results show the hypersensitive response of excision stress for the expression of defense response-related genes and synthesis of metabolites in grain legume chickpea against pathogen infestation including Agrobacterium.