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Mitotic spindle formation in Triparma laevis NIES-2565(Parmales, Heterokontophyta)

Yamada, Kazumasa, Nagasato, Chikako, Motomura, Taizo, Ichinomiya, Mutsuo, Kuwata, Akira, Kamiya, Mitsunobu, Ohki, Kaori, Yoshikawa, Shinya
Protoplasma 2017 v.254 no.1 pp. 461-471
Bacillariophyceae, Parmales, algae, centrioles, evolution, interphase, kinetochores, metaphase, microtubules, mitosis, mitotic spindle apparatus, nuclear membrane, prophase, telophase, transmission electron microscopy
The parmalean algae possess a siliceous wall and represent the sister lineage of diatoms; they are thought to be a key group for understanding the evolution of diatoms. Diatoms possess well-characterized and unique mitotic structures, but the mitotic apparatus of Parmales is still unknown. We observed the microtubule (MT) array during interphase and mitosis in Triparma laevis using TEM. The interphase cells had four or five centrioles (∼80 nm in length), from which MTs emanated toward the cytoplasm. In prophase, the bundle of MTs arose at an extranuclear site. The position of centrioles with respect to an MT bundle changed during its elongation. Centrioles were observed on the lateral side of a shorter MT bundle (∼590 nm) and on either side of an extended MT bundle (∼700 nm). In metaphase, the spindle consisted of two types of MTs-MT bundle that passed through a cytoplasmic tunnel in the center of the nucleus and single MTs (possibly kinetochore MTs) that extended from the poles into the nucleus. The nuclear envelope disappeared only at the regions where the kinetochore MTs penetrated. In telophase, daughter chromosomes migrated toward opposite poles, and the MT bundle was observed between segregating chromosomes. These observations showed that MT nucleation does not always occur at the periphery of centrioles through cell cycle and that the spindle of T. laevis has a similar configuration to that of diatoms.