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A Framework for Developing Research Protocols for Evaluation of Microbial Hazards and Controls during Production that Pertain to the Application of Untreated Soil Amendments of Animal Origin on Land Used to Grow Produce that may be Consumed Raw

Linda J. Harris, Elaine D. Berry, Tyann Blessington, Marilyn Erickson, Michele Jay-Russell, Xiuping Jiang, Karen Killinger, Fredrick C. Michel Jr., Pat Millner, Keith Schneider, Manan Sharma, Trevor V. Suslow, Luxin Wang, Randy W. Worobo
Journal of food protection 2013 v.76 no.6 pp. 1062-1084
agricultural land, animal manures, animals, control methods, crop production, experimental design, food crops, forage crops, grain crops, grains, hazard characterization, land use, nitrogen, on-farm food safety, organic matter, pathogens, phosphorus, researchers, soil amendments, soil quality, soil treatment, vegetable growing
Application of manure or soil amendments of animal origin (untreated soil amendments; UTSAs) to agricultural land has been a long-standing practice to maintain or improve soil quality through addition of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Much smaller quantities of these types of UTSAs are applied to land used for food crops than to land used for animal grain and forage. UTSAs can harbor zoonotic enteric pathogens that may survive for extended periods after application. Additional studies are needed to enhance our understanding of preharvest microbial food safety hazards and control measures pertaining to the application of UTSAs especially for land used to grow produce that may be consumed raw. This document is intended to provide an approach to study design and a framework for defining the scope and type of data required. This document also provides a tool for evaluating the strength of existing data and thus can aid the produce industry and regulatory authorities in identifying additional research needs. Ultimately, this framework provides a means by which researchers can increase consistency among and between studies and facilitates direct comparison of hazards and efficacy of controls applied to different regions, conditions, and practices.