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A mini-survey of moulds and mycotoxins in locally grown and imported wheat grains in Nigeria

Egbontan, Ayotokunbo O., Afolabi, Clement G., Kehinde, Iyabode A., Enikuomehin, Ololade A., Ezekiel, Chibundu N., Sulyok, Michael, Warth, Benedikt, Krska, Rudolf
Mycotoxin research 2017 v.33 no.1 pp. 59-64
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, European Union, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum, deoxynivalenol, flour, fungi, liquid chromatography, markets, mass spectrometry, metabolites, surveys, toxicity, wheat, Nigeria
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5–61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24–3.86%) were also recovered from the samples. The identified fungal species were Aspergillus flavus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger clade (2.6%), Fusarium avenaceum (10.9%), Fusarium culmorum (22.4%) and Fusarium graminearum (56.4%). A total of 54 microbial metabolites were detected in the samples at concentration ranging between 0.01 μg/kg for macrosporin and 2560 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol. Among the four mycotoxins addressed by regulations in the European Union (EU) found in the samples, deoxynivalenol (incidence 100%) dominated in the samples and its levels exceeded the maximum acceptable EU limit (750 μg/kg) in 36% of the samples. This report underscores the need for more robust surveys with larger sample sizes and across several agro-ecologies in the country.