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Genetic variation of mitochondrial genes among Echinococcus multilocularis isolates collected in western China

Wu, Chuanchuan, Zhang, Wenbao, Ran, Bo, Fan, Haining, Wang, Hui, Guo, Baoping, Zhou, Canlin, Shao, Yingmei, Zhang, Wei, Giraudoux, Patrick, Knapp, Jenny, Wen, Hao, Kuang, Ling, Li, Jun
Parasites & vectors 2017 v.10 no.1 pp. 265
DNA, Echinococcus multilocularis, Microtus, definitive hosts, dogs, echinococcosis, ethanol, foxes, genes, genetic databases, genetic variation, haplotypes, human diseases, humans, mitochondrial genome, nucleotide sequences, parasites, pathogenicity, patients, rodents, small mammals, tissues, China, Europe, North America
BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a life-threatening human disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis transmitted between rodents and dogs/foxes in the Northern Hemisphere. The study aims to identify the genetic variation of the parasite in AE patients from China. METHODS: E. multilocularis isolates were collected from wild small mammals (n = 6) and AE patients (n = 56) from western China. Genomic DNA was extracted from different tissue samples including paraffin tissue blocks, ethanol fixed tissues and frozen tissues surgically removed. Two mitochondrial gene fragments (526 bp for cob and 474 bp for nad2) of E. multilocularis were amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: The parasite fragment sequences of cob fragments from AE patients showed two haplotypes, and nad2 gene fragment sequences had four haplotypes. The gene sequences from Microtus sp. were 100% identical to the sequences of some isolates from AE patients. These haplotypes were distributed in both Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces. Alignment analysis with the sequences from the GenBank databases showed five genotypes including three Asian genotypes, one from Europe and one from North America. CONCLUSIONS: Most AE patients harbored the Asian genotype 1 which may be an indication of its relative frequency in the definitive hosts and the environment or of its pathogenicity to humans, which calls for further research.