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A comprehensive technique for artificial hybridization in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Kalve, Shweta, Tadege, Million
Plant methods 2017 v.13 no.1 pp. 52
Cicer arietinum, anthers, chickpeas, corolla, cross pollination, drying, females, genotype, hybridization, hybrids, leaves, males, parents, plant growth, pollen, stigma, temperature
BACKGROUND: Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. The important reason for the low success rate of the two procedures could be lack of detailed information on the flowering stages chosen for crossing together with the environment where plants grow. RESULTS: We describe a comprehensive method for chickpea crossing where two genotypes, ICCV96029 as female and PI503023 as male parent were used. Leaf shape and seed size were used as morphological markers to select hybrids. For crossing, incision was made along the central line of the keel petal for the removal of anthers and to expose the stigma for placement of pollen from donor parent on its surface. After pollination, style was inserted back gently inside the keel petal and covered by wing petals and standard petals to make a natural sac which prevents drying of internal organs. Alternatively, if the conditions are favorable there is no need to protect the pollinated flower and therefore petal removal method for cross-pollination can be used. Our method showed around 78% crossing success rate which is much higher than the previous results. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the crossing by keel petal incision or petal removal is an effective approach which significantly increases the crossing success rate. Furthermore, our detailed method shows that the flowering stage, selection of parents and temperature play crucial roles in crossing success.