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Eprinomectin pour-on (EPRINEX® Pour-on, Merial): efficacy against gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes and pharmacokinetics in sheep

Hamel, Dietmar, Bosco, Antonio, Rinaldi, Laura, Cringoli, Giuseppe, Kaulfuß, Karl-Heinz, Kellermann, Michael, Fischer, James, Wang, Hailun, Kley, Katrin, Mayr, Sandra, Rauh, Renate, Visser, Martin, Wiefel, Thea, Fankhauser, Becky, Rehbein, Steffen
BMC veterinary research 2017 v.13 no.1 pp. 148
Chabertia, Cooperia curticei, Dictyocaulus filaria, Haemonchus contortus, Merino, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, adults, anthelmintics, body weight, drugs, eggs, eprinomectin, feces, females, gastrointestinal nematodes, gastrointestinal system, lambs, larvae, lungworms, males, nematode infections, pharmacokinetics, physiological state, Germany, Italy
BACKGROUND: The anthelmintic efficacy of the 0.5% w/v topical formulation of eprinomectin (EPN), EPRINEX® Pour-on (Merial) when administered at 1 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in sheep in two dose confirmation laboratory studies and one multicenter field study. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of EPN when administered at that dosage to adult sheep was determined. RESULTS: In the two dose confirmation studies, which included 10 sheep each, sheep treated with topical EPN had significantly (p < 0.05) fewer of the following nematodes than the untreated sheep with overall reduction of nematode counts by >99%: adult Dictyocaulus filaria, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta(pinnata/trifurcata), Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Nematodirus battus, Strongyloides papillosus, Chabertia ovina and Oesophagostomum venulosum, and inhibited fourth-stage Teladorsagia larvae. A total of 196 sheep harboring naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections were included in the field efficacy study at two sites each in Germany (48 Merino x Ile de France lambs, 52 adult Merino females) and in Italy (adult male and female Bagnolese, Lacaune, Lacaune x Bagnolese, Bagnolese x Sarda sheep; 48 animals per site). Animals were blocked on pre-treatment body weight and within each block, one animal was randomly assigned to the control (untreated) group and three animals were randomly assigned to be treated with topical EPN. Examination of feces 14 days after treatment demonstrated that, relative to the controls, topical EPN-treated sheep had significantly (p < 0.0001) lower strongylid egg counts. Reduction was ≥97% at each site and 98.6% across all sites. Pharmacokinetics of EPN following single treatment with topical EPN were determined in eight ~4.5 year old female Merino cross sheep based on the analysis of plasma samples which were collected from two hours to 21 days following treatment. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were: Cₘₐₓ 6.20 ± 1.71 ng/mL, AUCₗₐₛₜ 48.8 ± 19.2 day*ng/mL, Tₘₐₓ 3.13 ± 2.99 days and T₁/₂ 6.40 ± 2.95 days. No treatment-related health problems or adverse drug events were observed in any study. CONCLUSION: These studies demonstrated 0.5% w/v EPN administered topically at 1 mg/kg body weight to be highly efficacious against a broad range of ovine gastrointestinal nematodes and D. filaria lungworms and well tolerated by sheep of different ages, breeds, gender and physiological status.