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Proximity ligation scaffolding and comparison of two Trichoderma reesei strains genomes
- Jourdier, Etienne, Baudry, Lyam, Poggi-Parodi, Dante, Vicq, Yoan, Koszul, Romain, Margeot, Antoine, Marbouty, Martial, Bidard, Frédérique
- Biotechnology for biofuels 2017 v.10 no.1 pp. 151
- Trichoderma reesei, centromeres, chromosome aberrations, genome, genome assembly, genomics, karyotyping, models, sexual reproduction
- BACKGROUND: The presence of low complexity and repeated regions in genomes often results in difficulties to assemble sequencing data into full chromosomes. However, the availability of full genome scaffolds is essential to several investigations, regarding for instance the evolution of entire clades, the analysis of chromosome rearrangements, and is pivotal to sexual crossing studies. In non-conventional but industrially relevant model organisms, such as the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei, a complete genome assembly is seldom available. RESULTS: The chromosome scaffolds of T. reesei QM6a and Rut-C30 strains have been generated using a contact genomic/proximity ligation genomic approach. The original reference assembly, encompassing dozens of scaffolds, was reorganized into two sets of seven chromosomes. Chromosomal contact data also allowed to characterize 10–40 kb, gene-free, AT-rich (76%) regions corresponding to the T. reesei centromeres. Large chromosomal rearrangements (LCR) in Rut-C30 were then characterized, in agreement with former studies, and the position of LCR breakpoints used to assess the likely chromosome structure of other T. reesei strains [QM9414, CBS999.97 (1-1, re), and QM9978]. In agreement with published results, we predict that the numerous chromosome rearrangements found in highly mutated industrial strains may limit the efficiency of sexual reproduction for their improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The GRAAL program allowed us to generate the karyotype of the Rut-C30 strain, and from there to predict chromosome structure for most T. reesei strains for which sequence is available. This method that exploits proximity ligation sequencing approach is a fast, cheap, and straightforward way to characterize both chromosome structure and centromere sequences and is likely to represent a popular convenient alternative to expensive and work-intensive resequencing projects.