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Screening and optimizing of inhibitors for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in sediments of malodorous river

Wang, Jianhua, He, Yan, Zhu, Jin, Guan, Huimin, Huang, Minsheng
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2017 v.101 no.15 pp. 6193-6203
Archaea, Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas, ampicillin, bacteria, dicyandiamide, gene dosage, microbial communities, rivers, screening, sediments, sequence analysis
The proper use of selective ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and/or ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) inhibitors is critical to distinguish AOA and AOB contribution. In this research, three inhibitors including ampicillin, dicyandiamide (DCD), and allylthiourea (ATU) were examined mainly focusing on inhibiting dosage, adaptability, and effects. The results showed that the optimized inhibitory dosage of ampicillin, DCD, and ATU was separately 1.5 g L⁻¹, 1 mM, and 25 μM. Among the three inhibitors, ATU exhibited the strongest and persistent inhibition effects and resulted in up to 90% inhibition in the AOB-enriched culture. The seemingly weakening inhibiting effects of ATU in the simulated river systems can be attributed to the involved role of AOA, the uneven spatial distribution of ATU, and protection by sediment structure in complex malodorous rivers. The high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis showed the AOB-related genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus were mostly affected by ATU in the enrichments and the river systems, respectively. The inhibition of ATU was realized mainly by reducing the abundance and activity of AOB. The decrease of the ratio of AOB/AOA amoA gene copy numbers after addition of ATU further confirmed the inhibiting effectiveness of ATU in complex microbial community of malodorous rivers.