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Genetic evidence for functional interaction of Smc5/6 complex and Top1 with spatial frequency of replication origins required for maintenance of chromosome stability

Rai, Ragini, Laloraya, Shikha
Current genetics 2017 v.63 no.4 pp. 765-776
chromosome elimination, mutants, mutation, replication origin, yeast artificial chromosomes
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants. While a SUMO-ligase-deficient mutant of Mms21 does not affect stability of the 5ori∆YAC by itself, in combination with top1∆, the 5ori∆YAC is destabilized as evidenced by increased chromosome loss frequency in the mms21∆sl top1∆ double mutant. Likewise, the smc6-56 top1∆ double mutant also exhibits enhanced destabilization of the 5ori∆YAC compared to either single mutant. Such an increase in chromosome loss is not observed for a similar YAC that retains the original replication origins and normal origin distribution on the long arm, in either double mutant having the mms21∆sl or smc6-56 mutations in combination with top1∆. Our findings reveal a requirement for the Smc5/6 complex, including Mms21/Nse2 mediated sumoylation, and topoisomerase-1 (Top1), for maintaining stability of a chromosome having low origin density and suggest a functional cooperation between the Smc5/6 complex and Top1 in maintenance of topologically challenged chromosomes prone to replication fork collapse or accumulation of torsional stress.